Validation! Supreme Court declines review of FFRF’s victory

The U.S. Supreme Court let stand a huge win for Freedom From Religion Foundation — and state/church separation — in a case about unconstitutional governmental funding of churches in New Jersey.

The New Jersey Supreme Court had unanimously held last April that taxpayers in Morris County could not be forced to pay to repair active houses of worship, several of which explicitly sought tax money in order to advance their religious mission. Morris County, defended by the Catholic Becket Fund, had asked the U.S. Supreme Court to take its appeal of FFRF’s resounding victory. On March 4, the Supreme Court denied Morris County’s petition.

Morris County had requested the Supreme Court extend a 2017 case, Trinity Lutheran v. Comer, which held that Missouri could not exclude a church-owned playground from a secular funding program.

The U.S. Supreme Court decision will save New Jersey taxpayers many millions of dollars and protects the religious liberty of all New Jersey residents.

“This is a big triumph for the rights of hardworking New Jersey folks,” comments FFRF Co-President Dan Barker. “The Supreme Court made the right call in refusing to jettison the basic tenets of our Constitution.”

Morris County churches argued that they are entitled to taxpayer funds, even though the state constitution specifically forbids such religious use of tax money. At the heart of the lawsuit is the New Jersey Constitution’s guarantee: “nor shall any person be obliged to pay tithes, taxes, or other rates for building or repairing any church or churches, place or places of worship, or for the maintenance of any minister or ministry, contrary to what he believes to be right.” (Article I, Paragraph 3.)

This taxpayer protection predates the creation of the United States and is a principle that the Founders, including Thomas Jefferson, saw as an essential guarantee to prevent the government from forcing citizens to support religions in which they disbelieve.

Six of the justices declined to review the case without comment. Justices Brett Kavanaugh, Samuel Alito and Neil Gorsuch offered two of their own reasons for the denial, both of which mischaracterized the case. First, they stated that the court’s refusal to hear the case was appropriate because “the factual details of the Morris County program

The U.S. Supreme Court decided to not take the appeal of FFRF’s victory regarding the governmental funding of churches, including the Presbyterian Church in Morristown, N.J.

are not entirely clear.” However, the facts of this case are actually clear and have never been in dispute.

Second, the three justices asserted that the law still needs development on the question of “whether governments may exclude religious organizations from general historic preservation grants programs.” This twists the facts of the case, which involves the right of taxpayers not to be forced to fund active houses of worship. The New Jersey Supreme Court’s decision did not require discrimination against religious organizations. In fact, Morris County provides funds to church-owned secular historic buildings — and even to historic churches that are not in use as houses of worship. Such funding was neither challenged by FFRF nor prohibited by the New Jersey Supreme Court.

The plaintiffs in the case were David Steketee, an FFRF member, and FFRF itself. Steketee and FFRF were represented before the Supreme Court by Berkeley Law School Dean Erwin Chemerinsky, local counsel Paul Grosswald and FFRF attorneys Andrew Seidel and Ryan Jayne, who served as co-counsel.

“I was elated to see the ruling this morning,” says Steketee, whose speech about this case during FFRF’s convention last year in San Francisco can be read on page 15. “Whether or not my fellow New Jersey residents agree with the outcome, they nevertheless have had their rights protected. The millions of residents throughout New Jersey and I are forever in FFRF’s debt for helping us to stand up for our rights.”

Portland gives equal status to nonbelievers

Portland, Ore., has become the second city in the country to give nonbelievers equal status, thanks to the efforts of the Freedom From Religion Foundation and its local chapter.

On Feb. 27, the Portland City Council unanimously approved an ordinance explicitly conferring on nonbelievers the same protections (against discrimination in housing, employment and public accommodations) granted to religious people.

[See Cheryl Kolbe’s testimony to the Portland City Council.]

“The proposed changes to our civil rights code may seem like a minor tweak, but they are significant for the many, many Portlanders who identify as nonreligious,” Commissioner Amanda Fritz said. “Remarkably, I have not received one email against this proposal.”

The only other city to pass a similar nondiscrimination regulation has been Madison, Wis., FFRF’s hometown, in 2015. This isn’t a coincidence, since FFRF member Anita Weier, supported by FFRF, was a driving force behind Madison’s statute. FFRF used that city’s law as a role model in its similar push in Portland.

In July 2017, FFRF’s Portland chapter contacted ACLU of Oregon and they jointly began work with Fritz’s office on this project. Cheryl Kolbe, president of the FFRF chapter, testified earlier in February before the City Council in favor of the ordinance.

“The question isn’t about which is right or better — religion or nonbelief,” she said. “It is about protection against discrimination. We are not asking for any special rights or privileges. We are

The coalition that helped pass the Portland, Ore., ordinance protecting nonbelievers includes (from left) Cheryl Kolbe, president, FFRF – Portland Area Chapter; Amanda Fritz, commissioner, Portland City Council; Kimberly McCullough, policy director, ACLU of Oregon; Cynthia Castro, policy advisor for Fritz; Markisha Smith, director, Office of Equity and Human Rights; and Koffi Dessou, manager, Office of Equity and Human Rights.

merely asking for the same protections against discrimination in housing, employment and accommodations that are afforded to those in a religion.”

The measure has made certain that it will not be left to a judge’s discretion to determine whether nonbelievers are protected. This protection against discrimination will be especially beneficial in a community as freethinking as Portland. It is the most religiously unaffiliated metro area in the nation, with 42 percent of the city and surrounding suburbs self-identifying as religiously unaffiliated, according to a 2015 study by the Public Religion Research Institute (PPRI).

FFRF hails the ordinance as a landmark for the freethinking community.

“Portland has proven itself to be on the cutting edge yet again,” says FFRF Co-President Annie Laurie Gaylor. “City officials have demonstrated that the rights of nonbelievers are every bit as important to them as any other segment of the local population.”

FFRF commends the effort put in by its Portland chapter and its president, Cheryl Kolbe, working together with FFRF Director of Strategic Response Andrew Seidel and FFRF Senior Counsel Patrick Elliott, to make this milestone legislation a reality.

Court panel rules against FFRF over housing allowance

A three-judge panel of the 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Chicago on March 15 ruled against the Freedom From Religion Foundation’s historic challenge of a housing allowance in the tax code that uniquely privileges clergy.

FFRF had won a favorable ruling by a federal judge in 2017, who found unconstitutional the provision in the tax code that allows “ministers of the gospel” to exclude from gross income any “housing allowance” paid by their church.

The 7th Circuit panel, in a decision written by Judge Michael B. Brennan, found that the plaintiffs and FFRF had proved their standing, and have properly alleged a “concrete, dollars-and-cents injury.” Nevertheless, it ruled 3-0 against FFRF on the merits. The other judges are William Bauer and Daniel Manion.

A billion-dollar tax benefit to “ministers of the gospel,” in the minds of these three judges, “has a secular legislative purpose, its principal effect is neither to endorse nor to inhibit religion, and it does not cause excessive government entanglement.”

FFRF Co-President Annie Laurie Gaylor, one of the plaintiffs, responded: “The housing allowance is so clearly a handout to churches and clergy, and it so clearly shows preferential treatment and discrimination in favor of ministers.”

The provision also clearly discriminates against nontheistic leaders who are similarly situated to clergy, Gaylor added, especially since the sponsor of the 1954 law challenged by FFRF, Rep. Peter Mack, argued that ministers should be rewarded with a clergy allowance for “carrying on such a courageous fight against this [a godless and anti-religious world movement].”

The clergy allowance is not a tax deduction, but an exemption — allowing housing allowances paid as part of clergy salary to be subtracted from taxable income. The congressional Joint Committee on Taxation has reported that the exemption amounts to $700 million a year in lost revenue.

The co-plaintiffs with Gaylor were FFRF Co-President Dan Barker and Ian Gaylor, representing the estate of President Emerita Anne Nicol Gaylor. FFRF had designated a housing allowance for the trio, and on that basis they sued the IRS. FFRF’s complaint alleged that the allowance “directly benefits ministers and churches, most significantly by lowering a minister’s tax burden, while discriminating against the individual plaintiffs, who as the leaders of a nonreligious organization opposed to governmental endorsements of religion are denied the same benefit.”

This is the second time FFRF had come before the 7th Circuit asking it to find the tax code provision unconstitutional. In 2013, U.S. District Judge Barbara Crabb ruled in FFRF’s favor. Crabb’s finding sent “shockwaves through the religious community,” according to the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability, which bitterly fought the ruling.

In November 2014, the 7th Circuit threw out FFRF’s first victory, saying the trio would need to prove their standing to sue by seeking and being denied a refund of their housing allowance. Accordingly, they sought the refunds and when denied, went back to court.

While Crabb ruled that “the plain language of the statute, its legislative history and its operation in practice all demonstrate a preference for ministers over secular employees,” the appeals court panel disagreed, applying what they called “the historic significance test.”

Wrote Brennan: “FFRF claims [this provision] renders unto God that which is Caesar’s. But this tax provision falls into the play between the joints of the Free Exercise Clause and the Establishment Clause: neither commanded by the former, nor proscribed by latter. We conclude [it] is constitutional. The judgment of the district court is reversed.”

The defendants were Steve Mnuchin, U.S. secretary of the treasury, and Charles Rettig, current IRS commissioner. The case also had religious intervenors as defendants. The case was filed on behalf of FFRF by litigator Richard L. Bolton. Tax law professor Adam Chodorow, who was counsel of record in a friend of the court brief on behalf of FFRF, joined Bolton in the oral arguments.

Don Addis cartoon

Sarah Vowell to speak at FFRF’s convention

Best-selling author Sarah Vowell has been added to the growing list of speakers for FFRF’s 42nd annual convention the weekend of Friday, Oct. 18, through Sunday, Oct. 20, at the Monona Terrace Community and Convention Center, 1 John Nolen Drive, in Madison, Wis.

Other speakers added recently include women’s rights activist Wendy Davis, Americans United for the Separation of Church & State President Rachel Laser and “Liberal Redneck” comedian Trae Crowder.

As always, it will be a weekend of great speakers, awesome people, good food, irreverent music and wonderful conversation. See the back page for convention information. Or go to

FFRF’s confirmed speakers include:

Sarah Vowell

She is the New York Times best-selling author of seven nonfictions books on American history and culture. Her more recent books include Lafayette in the Somewhat United States, Unfamiliar Fishes, The Wordy Shipmates and Assassination Vacation. By examining the connections between the American past and present, she offers personal, often humorous accounts of everything from presidents and their assassins to colonial religious fanatics.

Vowell was a contributing editor for the public radio show “This American Life” from 1996-2008. She was one of the original contributors to McSweeney’s, also participating in many of the quarterly’s readings and shows. She has been a columnist for, Time, San Francisco Weekly, and is a contributing op-ed writer for the New York Times. Vowell has made numerous appearances on the “Late Show with David Letterman,” “Late Night with Conan O’Brien” and the “Daily Show with Jon Stewart.” She is the voice of teen superhero Violet Parr in “The Incredibles,” and its sequel, “Incredibles 2.”

Rachel Laser

She will be accepting the $10,000 Henry Zumach Freedom From Religious Fundamentalism Award on behalf of Americans United for the Separation of Church & State (AU). Laser is president and CEO at AU. She is a lawyer, advocate and strategist who has dedicated her career to making our country more inclusive. She has a proven track record of uniting both faith and secular leaders and advocacy organizations to make tangible progress on some of the most important issues of our time. Prior to her role at AU, she served as the deputy director of the Religious Action Center of Reform Judaism, directed the Culture Program at Third Way and worked as senior counsel at the National Women’s Law Center. She also serves as a national board member of NARAL Pro-Choice America.

Wendy Davis

Davis, who gained na­tional prominence in 2013 when she held a 13-hour filibuster to protect women’s reproductive freedoms in Texas, will receive FFRF’s 2019 Forward Award. The award recognizes those who are moving society forward. Davis, raised by a single mother, herself a mother by 19, became the first in her family to grad­uate from college, ultimately graduating with honors from Harvard Law School. Elected to the Texas state Senate in 2008, she sponsored bills on everything from cancer prevention to payday lending to protecting victims of sexual assault. In 2016, Davis founded Deeds Not Words to give women the tools needed to make real progress.

Trae Crowder

He has recently earned national attention (or notoriety, depending on your viewpoint) for his “Liberal Redneck” series of viral videos. Crowder has been performing his particular brand of Southern-fried intellectual comedy in the Southeast and beyond for the past six years.

Trae’s videos have received more than 70 million views. He is coming off an 80-plus city sold-out standup comedy tour in support of his best-selling book Liberal Redneck Manifesto: Draggin Dixie Outta the Dark.

He has appeared on “Nightline,” “Real Time with Bill Maher,” “The View,” “Last Word with Lawrence O’Donnell,” “WTF with Marc Maron,” and NPR.

Frederick Clarkson

Clarkson is a senior research analyst at Political Research Associates, a progressive think tank in Somerville, Mass. He is the author, co-author or editor of several books, including Eternal Hostility: The Struggle Between Theocracy and Democracy and Dispatches from the Religious Left: The Future of Faith and Politics in America. He has written about politics and religion for a wide range of publications for more than three decades, from Mother Jones, Church & State, and Ms. Magazine to The Christian Science Monitor and Last year in Religion Dispatches, he broke the story about Project Blitz, a Christian Right state legislative campaign with long-range theocratic intentions.

Anthony B. Pinn

Pinn, who will be receiving FFRF’s Emperor Has No Clothes Award, is the Agnes Cullen Arnold Professor of Humanities and professor of religion at Rice University. He received his B.A. from Columbia University, Master of Divinity and Ph.D. in the study of religion from Harvard University. He is the founding director of the Center for Engaged Research and Collaborative Learning also at Rice University. In addition, he is director of research for the Institute for Humanist Studies. He is the author/editor of over 35 books, including When Colorblindness Isn’t the Answer: Humanism and the Challenge of Race (2017); Humanism: Essays in Race, Religion, and Cultural Production (2015); Writing God’s Obituary: How a Good Methodist Became a Better Atheist (2014).

Andrew L. Seidel

Seidel, an attorney and author, is the director of strategic response at FFRF, where he uses his law degree to challenge religious bullies. Seidel’s first book The Founding Myth: Why Christian Nationalism Is Un-American features a foreword by author Susan Jacoby and a preface by FFRF Co-President Dan Barker.

The Founding Myth comes out in May and is highly anticipated with positive reviews by many, including evolutionary biologist Jerry Coyne (“Seidel has done a great service, strengthening Jefferson’s wall between church and state”) and renowned constitutional scholar Erwin Chemerinsky, who described it as “a beautifully written book” that “explodes a frequently expressed myth: that the United States was created as a Christian nation.”

Mandisa Thomas

Thomas, who will be named FFRF’s 2019 Freethought Heroine, is the founder and president of Black Nonbelievers. She has a number of media appearances to her credit, including “CBS Sunday Morning,” CNN, and Playboy, The Humanist and JET magazines. Thomas currently serves on the Boards for American Atheists and the Reason Rally Coalition, and previously for Foundation Beyond Belief and the Secular Coalition for America. Additionally, she was named the Unitarian Universalist Humanist Association’s 2018 Person of the Year.

More details and online registration can be found on the back page or at

Sarah Vowell
Americans United new Executive Director Rachel Laser.
Trae Crowder
Wendy Davis
Frederick Clarkson
Anthony Pinn
Mandisa Thomas
Andrew L. Seidel

Meet a member: Rocket scientist hopes to launch book

Name: Emory Lynn.

Where I live: Huntsville, Ala.

Where and when I was born: Savannah, Ga., 1946.

Family: Wife Shealy, son Kevin of Denver and daughter Christine and granddaughter Isabelle and grandson Owen of Huntsville.

Education: B.S. in aerospace engineering and MBA from Auburn University.

Occupation: I retired in 2005 as a launch vehicle design engineer. My career in the aerospace industry, mostly with NASA, included work on the Saturn V and space shuttle programs, and feasibility studies on launch vehicle and space systems in the Advanced Concepts Office at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville. The career achievement I am most proud of was the development of a launch vehicle design (computer) program, which took me eight years to complete. That is now NASA’s standard analytical program for creating initial launch vehicle designs. The first design for the space shuttle replacement vehicle, called the Space Launch System (SLS), was achieved with this program, as were the initial designs for more than 60 launch vehicle concepts from which the SLS was selected. America’s plans for returning to the moon and venturing to Mars are riding on the SLS, the most powerful rocket ever, that took its first steps with the program I developed.

How I got to where I am today: I was raised in Christianity (Methodism) and long professed to be a Christian. However, for over 30 years I drifted on a sea of doubt about the actual existence of anything beyond the natural world. I became determined to eventually do whatever was necessary to sort through it all and arrive at a conclusion I could confidently base the remainder of my life on. Sorting fact from fiction began in earnest a few years before I retired. I have now spent 17 years rigorously researching every topic I thought might have any relevance to the truth of religion in general, but more specifically to the truth of the Abrahamic religions of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, and even more so to Christianity. From this research, I have just finished writing a very comprehensive and in-depth book that I hope to get published soon. It’s called Upon Further Review: The Search for Truth and Reality in the Abrahamic Faiths. The title is a reflection of my journey to nonbelief. My admittedly very ambitious goal is to provide more useful information about what is true and not true about one religion in particular, Christianity, than is available in any other single source. Consequently, it is not a small book.

Where I’m headed: My next task is to get the book published. To introduce it to the public, I’ve created a website: The site thoroughly describes the book and includes numerous extensive excerpts that should be enjoyable and informative reading. Feel free to visit the site. I hope to become a significant influence in the trend toward nonbelief in America. The book contains a wealth of factual information that other nonbelievers, who are more skilled at debating and speaking than I am, can use to more effectively confront religious apologetics.

Person in history I admire and why: This is a difficult call because there are so many. To pick one, I’ll go with Carl Sagan. He was an extremely gifted and influential advocate for science and secularity. High honorable mention: Charles Darwin, for obvious reasons; and Al Gore because of his tireless work to draw attention to climate change, in spite of the relentless B.S. he has been subjected to.

A quotation I like: “Some believers accuse skeptics of having nothing left but a dull, cold, scientific world. I am left with only art, music, literature, theatre, the magnificence of nature, mathematics, the human spirit, sex, the cosmos, friendship, history, science, imagination, dreams, oceans, mountains, love and the wonder of birth. That’ll do for me.” — Lynne Kelly (Australian science writer, researcher and science educator).

These are a few of my favorite things: The great outdoors, landscaping around home, hunting cagey whitetail bucks in nearby mountains with camera or bow and arrow, reading and forever learning, beagle puppies, an infant’s smile.

These are not: Global warming, global warming deniers, science fiction (for me, real science is too fascinating to spend time on the other), the Donald, sloppily written texts and e-mail messages that make little or no sense, overseas customer support personnel who sound like they’re speaking in tongues.

My doubts about religion started: This was a slow and steady march beginning in about my late 20s. The more I contemplated the religion I was raised in, the less sense it made, until I was troubled enough to begin a “second career”— sorting fact from fiction about religion, beyond any reasonable doubt.

Ways I promote freethought: First, I recently increased my support of FFRF by upgrading my Life Membership to After-Life. Second, I hope to become a significant freethought influence through Upon Further Review.

Before I die: Hopefully, I will live to see the suffocating tentacles of religion withdrawn from American public life because of an expanding awareness of the poverty of truth and reality in religious doctrine. Also, I’d like to visit Great Britain and Norway to see where many of my ancestors came from.

Emory Lynn

Barker has a Prayer 

FFRF member Diane Buckner of Georgia was reading the 2013 fiction book, Prayer, by Philip Kerr, when she came across the name of FFRF Co-President Dan Barker in the text.

From Page 24 of the paperback version:

“Coogan unzipped the bag and handed me a paperback book titled All the Possible Gods.  The author was Philip Osbourne. As soon as I saw it, I laughed.

‘Only an hour or two ago Ruth was giving me hell for reading this book. And several others like it.’

“‘Oh? Such as?’

“‘Dawkins, Hitchens, [fictional] Peter Eckman,’ I shrugged. ‘Sam Harris, Dan Barker, Daniel Dennett. . .’   

Coogan chuckled. ‘That’s virtually the whole pantheon of disbelief you have there.’”


FFRF welcomes 21 new Lifers

FFRF welcomes and thanks our 21 new Lifetime Members.

Included among the new Life Members are five who were given gift memberships from Lifetime Member Dr. Harold Saferstein. (Thanks, Harold!) Those five are Carole Abele, Howard Johnson, Steve Metzger, Elizabeth Sowell and Lacey Wieser.

The other new $1,000 Lifetime Members are Darrin Alber, Peter Andreae, Duke Dayton, Willy Evans, Charles Hasseltine, Dr. Kenneth Hoffman, Alec Lothert, Suzanne Marshall, Ronald M. McLaughlin, John Morris, Elizabeth Mullis, Mark Mullis, Dr. Jonathan Richmond, David Riedl, John Sabourin and Don Terry.

States represented are Arizona, California, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin.

FFRF has also learned that one member has become an Immortal: William Fischer of Colorado.

The Immortals category is a donation designation for those members who have contacted FFRF to report they have made provisions for FFRF in their estate planning.

Special thanks to all of our new Life Members and Immortal.

Heads Up poetry column — Judas


Ask Peter, ask Paul — the really unbearable part

was figuring out those hillbilly parables

We understood the straight stuff, “Blessed

are the peacemakers,” and such, but not

those constant “It is like unto’s . . .”

They always sent shivers through us—we knew

there’d be catechism after the sermon.

“It is like unto sowing seeds,” he’d say

in that Nazarene country drawl,

“some of them fall on good soil,

others on rock.” Well, everybody knows that,

but what did he mean by it?

He’d only say, “Who hath ears to hear,

let him hear.” Big help.

Or he’d say, “It is like unto a mustard seed

that grows into a huge plant.” Mmm-hmm.

He’d say, “The kingdom of heaven

is like unto leaven,” and so on.

And then, of course, that inevitable

“Who hath ears to hear,” etcetera.

We were always as nervous as cats in a doghouse,

John sneaking glances at James, James

dragging his toe in the sand and looking

at Thomas, Thomas looking doubtful,

all of us hoping that someone would understand.

But we never did, not one single time—finally

he always had to explain. “The field

is the world,” he’d say, his eyebrows grim

as a tax collector, “The good seed

are the children of the kingdom, get it?”

Oh, sure, it’s easy when you already

know the answer, but

suppose it’d been you, hearing

for the hundredth time

those words like needles in your nerves,

“It is like unto, it is like unto . . . ”

It drives you over the edge, finally, even

Peter claiming he didn’t know him,

and I . . . Well,

with or without those thirty pieces of silver,

it’s a wonder that none of the others

crossed him first.

From Perfidious Proverbs and Other Poems:

A Satirical Look At The Bible

In memoriam: Diane Olson, marriage equality activist, dies at 65

Diane Olson, who, along with her wife, was the first lesbian plaintiff to file a successful lawsuit that brought marriage equality to California, died of brain cancer on Jan. 16.

Diane was also the granddaughter of California Gov. Culbert Levy Olson, who ran on the platform of “separation of church and state.” Her sister is Debra Deanne Olson, who spoke at FFRF’s convention in San Francisco in November.

Diane and her wife, Robin Tyler, were the first to be allowed to marry in Los Angeles County, because they were the first to file suit in California, challenging the law which denied same sex couples the right to marry.

Robin and Diane decided to take legal action, because Robin was retiring and her union would not extend medical benefits to the couple after retirement as they were not “married.” Attorney Gloria Allred, a friend of the couple, agreed to take their case and represent them pro bono.

Diane was raised in Beverly Hills, and for four years Robin and Diane went to the Beverly Hills courthouse with other activists to demand a marriage license prior to Allred’s filing the suit on Feb. 23, 2004. On June 16, 2008, media from all over the world covered their wedding in front of the Beverly Hills Courthouse, surrounded by their families, friends and attorneys.

Olson joined Tyler’s International Tour Company for lesbians and for 20 years they travelled around the world.

In 2012, Diane developed lung cancer that metastasized into brain cancer in 2016. After treatment, they continued to participate in LGBT politics, and travel the world until the couple’s last yearly visit to Cancun in October 2018.

Diane Olson

In memoriam: Lifer Louise Grant dies at 88

Lifetime Member Louise Grant, beloved wife of James, died on Jan. 24 at the age of 88 in Tempe, Ariz. She was a kind and loving, wife, mother and friend.

Louise was born in New York City and later moved to Arizona, where she met James. Louise loved to dance (square, round and ballroom) and they danced in many places across the country, wherever work assignments took them. They also danced on numerous vacation cruises around the world.

Louise is survived by her husband James, her sister Jean, and children Richard, Louise, Linda, and Victoria, and several grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

James is also an FFRF Lifetime Member.